SCIENCE behind

## SCIENCE behind ORMUS / M-State Elements / ORMES: (page created June 2007 – last updated August 2007)

## Theory of the White Powder, by from

Sun, 26 May 1996 12:49:05 -0400 —

After listening to Hudson’s lectures in Yelm during October/November 1995, I was later asked by several people in the audience “what did he say?” I found myself stumbling all over myself searching for the few words needed to answer the question. I couldn’t do it.

I then started a search for a quick summary of Hudson’s work and came up empty handed. So, I wrote my own summary, limited though it may be.

First, I sent it to Hudson for his comments. He did not acknowledge receiving it. When I called him, he didn’t know what I was talking about. He must not read his mail.

Next, I sent it to the moderated forum for posting. The moderator rejected it because it was “unsubstantiated” and “opinionated.” Without Hudson’s approval, she would not post it.

With these caveats in mind, I now post it to this unmoderated forum for your review and comments. If any of you wish to improve upon it, please feel free to do so. I claim no proprietary rights to this material. If you wish, I can also send this to anyone who requests it in Microsoft Word editable format for easier editing.

The whole point of this is an attempt to get a scientifically-acceptable theory of the white powder written. Without an acceptable theory, all we have are a lot of 4-hour videos and indecipherable patents to refer to.

If you choose to edit, please keep the rest of us informed along the way.

– – name=”THEORY.TXT”

What is the White Powder?

The “white powder” is comprised of a group of elements in a monatomic state. David Hudson calls them “ORMEs” for “orbitally-rearranged monatomic elements.” This is a new phase of matter with entirely different physical properties from normal elements. Conventional chemistry texts have been of little value in explaining ORMEs. Hudson explains the concept in his video tapes. However, there are ambiguities, unclear statements, and contradictions among his various videos.

The intent here is to establishment a common baseline document on which further discussions can be focused. You are encouraged to contribute to it.

ORMEs are naturally occurring in certain volcanic soils dating back to early geological events. Such soils are prevalent throughout the western United States. Soils which are considered rich in these elements might contain up to six percent of this material. The remaining 94 percent or more of the material is ordinary dirt comprised mainly of silicon compounds. Initial processing consists of removing the dirt to get the residue. The residue comprises ORMEs or the “white powder.”

Because of the unique and valuable physical properties of ORMEs, there has developed a desire to produce them from the metallic form of the elements. In other words, there are reasons to convert metallic precious elements to ORMEs. Hudson has found ways to do this although he reports that the cost of doing so is prohibitively expensive. The reason for the high cost is due principally to the high, per-ounce cost of most precious metals.

The process itself is tedious but is not particularly expensive. But it is much less expensive to start with natural material and to then “simply” remove the ordinary elements from the natural material to get pure ORMEs matter.

Because the percentage of ORMEs in certain volcanic soils is so high (up to 6 percent) in comparison with normal high-grade ore (up to 0.0015 percent), there is considerable interest by mining companies in the technology required to convert ORMEs to their metallic form. The yield increases by a factor of 4000. So far, no mining company has figured out how to do this. The processing technique is highly proprietary and will not be disclosed, according to Hudson. Hudson has stated that his sole interest is in the monatomic form of these elements; he has no interest in producing the metallic form of the precious elements. Further, Hudson states that there is never a need to convert monatomic materials to their metallic state during the manufacturing process.

The only time a conversion is required is to allow standard analytical chemical procedures to be used to identify a small sample of the material.

Hudson further states that he has the technology to separate the monatomic material into the various elements for specific commercial applications without conversion to the metallic state.

That is, he can produce the white powder of gold, the white powder of palladium, the white powder of osmium, etc without conversions. He also stated that the white powder which will be delivered to the members of his spiritual foundation would be refined but “unseparated” monatomic material. That is, it would contain all the monatomic elements in their naturally-occurring proportions. It is his intention to not make the white powder of gold uniquely available to the spiritual membership although the naturally-occuring percentage of the white powder of gold would be included in the delivered mixture. In other words, the gold would not be removed from the mixture prior to delivery to the spiritual membership.

Hudson’s lack of interest in the metallic form of the precious metals is not entirely altruistic. His spreadsheet analyses have shown that he can profit more by licensing in perpetuity the white powder for industrial applicatons than by selling the bullion on the precious metals market. There is also a much lower security risk because the white powder itself has no market value to thieves.

The Physics Behind it All:
If you look in any physics or chemistry text book for an explanation of what’s going on here, you will look in vain. Nuclear physicists are just now getting a glimmer of an idea of the phenomena as explained in recent issues of such magazines as “Scientific American” and in various scientific journals. Based on Hudson’s videos, an attempt will be made to explain the phenomena in layman’s terms. (Not everyone is a nuclear physicist so the following simplified explanations may cause some physicists to wince from time-to-time. If you think you can explain it more clearly and more accurately to a layman, please feel free to give it a try.)

The Bohr Model of the Atom.- Neils Bohr explained many years ago the structure of an atom as having a nucleus comprised of positively- charged protons and neutrally-charged neutrons surrounded by a cloud of electrons. These are extremely tiny particles of matter. If you were to compare an atom with the solar system, the nucleus would be the sun and the electrons would be the planets.

There are two forces at work within the nucleus. One is the “strong” force which is the glue which holds all the protons and neutrons together. The other force is the “coulomb” force (electromagnetic in nature) which works to force the protons to repel each other. Within the tiny geometry of a spherical nucleus, the strong force is much stronger than the coulomb force, thereby holding the nucleus together despite the weaker coulomb force which works to break apart the nucleus. The strong force operates at short distances whereas the coulomb force operates at longer distances. Thus, within the dimensions of an atomic sphere, the strong force prevails, holding the nucleus together. If the nucleus becomes physically deformed, the coulomb force might prevail, causing the nucleus to disintegrate.

There are several bands of negatively-charged electrons which “rotate” around the nucleus. There are the same number of electrons surrounding the nucleus as there are protons within the nucleus. The outer band of electrons is called the “valence” band. Electrons in this band are called the “valence” electrons.

These are the electrons which are involved in chemical reactions. If the outer band of electrons is “full”, the element is quite stable. If the outer band is not “full”, the element is prone to interact with other atoms of the same element or with other elements to form chemical compounds such that the outer band is “filled.”

The number of electrons in the outer valence band varies depending upon the number of protons in the nucleus. Periodic tables identify the number of valence electrons that each element has.

Neutrons and protons are rougly equivalent in size and weight whereas the electron is so small as to be almost indistinguishable from pure energy with virtually no discernible mass.

Typically, the atoms of metallic elements group themselves in sort of a crystalline lattice network whereby each atom shares electrons with other atoms of the same element. This is a relatively stable arrangement where the various nuclei are held in position by the forces of their neighboring nuclei. All metals share this charateristic but with a variety of crystalline configurations.

It is difficult to disturb this structure; hence the physical rigidity of metals. So far, we have not strayed from conventional chemistry and you can read the above description (more precisely, perhaps) in any college chemistry text. Now, we will move into new territory.

Phases of Matter.- Classical science teaches us that the three phases of matter are gasses, liquids, and solids. Some solids crystallize into a lattice structure with metallic characteristics.

What classical science does not teach is that there is, in fact, another phase of matter called “monatomic.” These materials have ceramic-like properties.

Microclusters.- Nuclear physicists recently discovered that the atoms of some elements exist in microclusters. These are tiny groups of between 2 and 100 atoms. If you have more than a specified number of atoms in a microcluster, these atoms will aggregate into a lattice structure with metallic properties. If you have fewer than that critical number of atoms, that microcluster will disaggregate into monatomic atoms with ceramic properties.

Monataomic atoms are not held in position by the forces of their neighboring atoms as they are by atoms in a lattice structure. Most elements require a minimum of 14 atoms before they exhibit metallic characteristics. The critical number of atoms for rhodium is 9 and the critical number of atoms for gold is just 2.

The significance of this is that if you have two or more gold atoms in a microcluster, it will exhibit metallic characteristics. However, if you have 9 or fewer atoms in a microcluster of rhodium atoms, the microcluster will spontaneously disaggregate to become a group of monatomic rhodium atoms. Apparently, the only force which binds monatomic atoms together is gravity. More insight is needed in this area.

It has been observed that the valence electrons of monatomic elements are unavailable for chemical reactions. This means that monatomic atoms are chemically inert and have many of the physical properties of ceramic materials. Because the valence electrons are unavailable, it is impossible to use standard analytical chemistry techniques to identify a monatomic element.

These are very recent discoveries and the full implications have yet to be evaluated by the scientific community. You won’t find this discussed in textbooks yet.

In general, a metallic element is physically stable and is a relatively good conductor of both heat and electricity and is usually chemically active (metals typically rust and/or corrode.) To the contrary, monatomic atoms of the same element behave more like a ceramic in that they are generally a poor conductor of both heat and electricity and are chemically inert. In addition, monatomic elements exhibit the characteristics of superconductors at room temperature.

(It may sound like a contradiction to say that monatomic elements are both perfect insulators and perfect conductors, but it isn’t. A superconductor will not allow an electrical potential to exist within it. Because conventional electricity requires a potential difference for current to flow, conventional electricity cannot flow in a superconductor, hence it is an insulator. However, current will flow with no resistance if the current is coupled to the superconductor at a resonant frequency.)

Russian scientists explicitely state in their literature that atoms in lattice structures are metallic in nature and that these same atoms in the monatomic state are ceramic in nature.

Monatomic atoms have been observed to exist in all the heavy elements in the center of the periodic table. These are the elements which have “half-filled” bands of valence electrons and include the following elements. Their atomic numbers are given in parenthesis. (The atomic number represents the number of protons in the nucleus.)
Cobalt (27), Nickel (28), Copper (29), Ruthenium (44), Rhodium (45), Palladium (46), Silver (47), Osmium (76), Iridium (77), Platinum (78), Gold (79), and Mercury (80). Other metallic elements in adjacent parts of the periodic table have also been observed to exist in microclusters.

Because the atoms of monatomic elements are not held in a rigid lattice network, their physical characteristics are quite different from atoms which are locked in the lattice. Thus, it is the grouping of atoms which defines the physical characteristics of the element; not just the number of neutrons and protons in the nucleus as previously believed. If you don’t have a lattice network, you don’t have a metal even though the atoms of the two forms of matter are identical!

The implication here is that there is an entirely new phase of matter lurking about the universe. This phase of matter is comprised of monatomic elements; a heretofore unknown phase of matter. They have remained unknown for so long because they are inert and undetectable by normal analytical techniques.

This might be nothing but a scientific curiosity except for the fact that these same scientists now believe that up to 5 percent of the earth’s mass is comprised of monatomic elements.

This is a huge amount of heretofore unknown matter, existing undiscovered right under our noses since the beginning of time. At the very least, it should be an embarrassment to the scientific establishment.

Limitations of Analytical Chemistry.- How could it be that up to five percent of the earth’s matter could be comprised of material which heretofore has been completely undiscovered? It has to do with the theory of analytical chemistry. None of the detection techniques of analytical chemistry can detect monatomic elements. They can only detect elements by interacting with their valence electrons. Because the valence electrons of monatomic atoms are unavailable, the atoms are unidentifiable.

To detect a monatomic element requires that you first convert it from its monatomic state to its normal state to allow the element to be detected with conventional instrumentation. As a result, this phase of matter has existed as a stealth material right under the noses of scientists without detection until quite recently.

Peculiarities of Monatomic Elements.- The monatomic form of an element exhibits physical characteristics which are entirely different from its metallic form. These differences are currently being investigated by nuclear physicists so it isn’t possible to make an exhaustive list of the differences at this time. A few of the differences will be noted. Readers are encouraged to add to this list.

The physical appearance of the monatomic form of an element is that of a fluffy white powder with a fluorescent-like glow. This powder behaves as a superconductor at room tempeature, giving it very interesting properties. Because it is a superconductor, it tends to “ride” on the magnetic field of the earth, giving it the powers of levitation. It has been found to be very difficult to determine the specific gravity of monatomic elements because the weight varies widely with temperature and the magnetic environment. Under some circumstances, monatomic elements weigh less than zero! That is, a box full of monatomic matter has been observed to weigh less than the empty box. This is a hard concept to swallow for those who say they only believe what they see.

These elements have the characteristics similar to that of porcelain in that they do not chemically react with anything and are very tough, durable, and heat resistant.

Transmutation.- According to recent articles in “Scientific American,” monatomic elements tend to be prone to transmutation as follows:

Normal nuclei are spherical in shape. They are held in this shape by the competing forces of all the neighboring atoms of a lattice network. Monatomic elements, on the other hand, have no neighbors to keep them out of trouble. Because the valence band of electrons are only half filled, these heavy elements are inherently physically unstable in the monatomic state. (Note a distinction between being chemically inert and being physically unstable. Monatomic elements are both inert and physically unstable.)

You might compare a monatomic atom with a single-cylinder gasoline engine which runs with quite a bit of vibration. As you add cylinders to this engine, the vibration is dampened out until you can hardly detect any vibration by the time you reach 8-cylinders.

Because monatomic atoms “vibrate” more than atoms in a lattice network, their nuclei tend to deform into an “oblong” shape similar to that of a bowling pin. So what, you say?

This is where the “strong” and the “coulomb” (electromagnetic) forces come into play. When working within the dimensions of a spherical nucleus, the “strong” force of an atom overwhelms the weaker coulomb forces, maintaining the atom in a stable configuration. But, when a monatomic atom starts to vibrate, it tends to be deformed into the elongated shape of a bowlng pin. If this shape is caried to an extreme whereby the atom is twice as long as it is wide, then the coulomb force overwhelms the strong force and the atom spontaneously disintegrates into two smaller elements accompanied by a burst of radiation. (This is clled spontaneous fission.) Of course, most monatomic atoms never reach the critical level of deformity which causes them to disintegrate. They simply exist is a steady state of less than critical deformity.

“Scientific American” recently published an article which described how quite a number of heavy elements had been observed to spontaneously split (fission) into smaller atoms. This is indeed the stuff of alchemists.

Not much is known about the cirucmstances which contribute to this spontaneous transmutation. About all that can be said at this early date is that spontaneous transmutation has been observed to exist.

It is no longer a matter of whether transmutation does nor does not exist but under what circumstances such transmutation occurs.

It is truly amazing that nature can offer two identical atoms (identical numbers of protons, electrons, and neutrons) with such different physical characteristics. The only difference between the two is the manner in which groups of atoms are bonded together.

Much more will be discovered about this in the near future as the nuclear physicists continue to pursue these most interesting mysteries.

(to link the article above use: #THEORY)

## Spin Waves: Or the phenomena of charge coupled resonance of atomic domains. from

Spin waves are a name for a microcosmic action that can be viewed in nature of a macrocosmic scale. On a small scale, a uniform atomic lattice of identical atoms, acts as one atom, as their domains line up like an inner spring mattress. The springs can be likened to the atomic domains as considered vortex phenomena. The individual domains are inelastic in nature, due to the so-called Strong Force. They tend to be bi-directional. When a mattress is laid upon individual domains are squeezed, and displaced but held in place by the Weak force, which has its counterpart in the mattress frame. The Strong force holds the electrons in orbit around atoms, and gets weaker at a distance, and The Weak force, which holds atoms nucleus together, gets Stronger as distance between atoms increases.

When likened to soldiers on parade, at parade rest, A drill sergeant who is represented by a magnetic field orders his men to face him wherever he goes, and to return to their normal state after he passes. As he walks through the ranks, the men all turn to him as he walks by, then return to their former positions, and go to parade rest again. As he passes through the soldiers they begin jockeying to line up perfectly again. This looked at from above would look slightly disordered but would return to normal after a short time. Viewed from a perspective angle it would look slightly chaotic. Disturbed, but then allowed to return to a normal flat undisturbed state. The sergeant is again representative of a biased or magnetic field propagated tangent to the orderly lattice of atoms. The soldiers are represented by the magnetic orientation of the atoms axis of spin. That spin is represented by positive/north, negative/south, and neutral/center.

In a clearer illustration standing water can represent spin waves. In a swimming pool, when swimmer exits, the water is choppy, but the water, when no longer being disturbed eventually returns to its normal flat state. The water is the neatly arranged atomic domain. The swimmer is the magnetic field. The fact that the water doesn’t immediately return to a flat state is due to charge imbalance resonance. The atoms want to line up. But they are acted upon by the waves hitting the pool edge, and rebounding. In other words, the Strong Force, and Weak Force are trying to conserve momentum.

This type of behavior on the atomic level has its conterpart in crystalline structures, of which metals, and salts are members. In a behavior called “Pinning” atomic domains become disordered as these materials are heated to a liquid state. The normally rigid crystalline lattices become disordered by convection currents, and eventually become chaotic. When these substances are left to cool the atomic domains start to line up again, and reform into neat orderly little three dimensional cages, but slight hiccups are formed by dissimilar atoms, and the arrangement is more disordered, as impurities interrupt the normal crystal formation according to their individual properties. Each atom makes its own individually shaped cage. The arrangement is only as perfect as the purity of the elements involved, and the orderliness of the heating, and cooling conditions undergone in the process. Some elements are more compatible than others. Thus, spin waves are related to pinning as far as we are concerned. The purer the substance is, the more quickly it returns to its orderly nature. These elements should be endothermic by nature, such as glass, diamond, or ruby. The more refined the substance is, the less refraction, and more light conductance there will be. And, in compliment, the more refined the substance is, the more endothermic, or heat conducting it will be. There is also a case for sound resonance, which is wholly in tune with this line of reasoning.

These ultra pure metals, and crystalline substances’ properties, could be important in testing procedures, as cheap, reliable methods could be found to test for purity, and metals contained within annealed substances. These properties also lend themselves to manipulation by biased magnetic fields used in tandem, to separate for purity. Different elements have differing magnetic moments, so the attenuation in tandem presents a reliable way of separation. Due to the fact, that superconductors are ultra sensitive, they might even be susceptible to being moved by hand, or voice, if the correct intent is manifested in preparatory manner. This sounds weird but it can’t be discounted, because we are in a new era, and a new area. I’m about to twist myself up, so I’ll stop. You get my drift anyway, I hope.

(to link the article above use: #SPIN1)

## DNA – Celebrating 50 years of the double helix, From New Scientist Magazine 15 March 03 –

Live wire, By Graham Lawton

ALMOST as soon as the structure of DNA was in the bag, biochemists began speculating that the double helix might do more than just store information. Its chemical structure suggested it could conduct electricity like a length of copper wire.

Half a century on, biochemists have shown beyond doubt that purified DNA molecules can conduct charge. In living cells, too, the DNA duplex seems to soak up charge and transport it over long distances. Many researchers are now starting to think the phenomenon must have a biological function. “I can ‘t imagine that nature has not exploited DNA charge transport in some context,” says Jackie Barton, a DNA chemist at California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

The obvious place would be in DNA damage and repair. Most of the workaday wear-and-tear inflicted on genes starts at the electron level, when free radicals and other highly reactive byproducts of metabolism plunder electrons from the double helix. The easiest target for this “oxidative damage” is the base guanine, because one of its electrons is more weakly bound than any of those in the other three bases.

The loss of an electron from a guanine can be the start of serious problems, because oxidised guanines react with water to form a variety of troublesome molecules. The most common is 8-oxoG, which incorrectly pairs with adenine as well as guanine ‘s normal partner, cytosine. So if a cell divides while carrying an 8oxoG, the daughter cell has a 50/50 chance of carrying an adenine where a cytosine should be in other words, a mutation.

Cells have evolved all sorts of mechanisms to detect and fix oxidative damage (see “Running repair”). But these surveillance systems cannot pick up everything, and mutations caused by oxidising agents are among the leading causes of cancer, genetic disease and cell death.

Because oxidative damage is so important, biochemists have long been interested in how it happens. And back in the 1960s they realised that if DNAcarried charge it would affect the process profoundly. Loss of an electron creates a vacancy, or “hole”, that can migrate through a conductor as if it were a tangible object. If DNA really were a conductor, then oxidative damage might skip along the strands and produce an 8-oxoG some distance from the initial attack.

In 1996, Barton ‘s team confirmed that oxidative damage really can occur at a distance. By using a specially designed oxidising agent to pluck electrons from a specified guanine, the researchers showed that damage could occur up to 11 base pairs from the original attack. There was only one explanation holes were migrating along the DNA strand ( Nature, vol 382, p 731).

Barton ‘s team and others have since shown hole migration over 60 or so base pairs in purified DNA. Meanwhile, theory suggests they could travel as far as 100 base pairs, says DNA chemist Bernd Giese of the University of Basle, Switzerland.

Barton ‘s group has also shown that hole migration can happen in isolated cell nuclei ( Biochemistry, vol 40, p12465), and they are doing experiments to confirm hole migration in living cells.

But what biological function might it have? Enter Adam Heller, a biochemical engineer at the University of Texas in Austin. In 1999, he proposed a radical theory that puts hole migration in the frontline of the fight against DNA damage.

Heller pointed out that in Barton ‘s landmark experiment, the final oxidative damage always happened at the first guanine in a guanine-guanine couplet. From a chemical point of view, this makes sense it ‘s easier to steal electrons from GG than from a single guanine (in chemical parlance, it has a lower oxidation potential). Other experiments have confirmed the GG effect and also showed even stronger preferential damage of GGG triplets, which have a lower oxidation potential still. Itlooked as if holes were migrating along the strand until they hit a GG couplet or a GGG, where they stayed put until a water molecule came along and converted the holes into permanent damage.

To Heller, it was highly reminiscent of an old chemical trick called cathodic protection, where you use one material with a low oxidation potential to protect another, more valuable material against oxidising damage. This was first tried in 1824 when Humphry Davy attached zinc plates to the steel hulls of British warships. The principle is still used today in galvanisation, where zinc is sacrificially oxidised to keep steel rust-free.

Perhaps, Heller reasoned, charge transfer along DNA performs the same function. Ifoxidative damage likes to settle on guanine twins or triplets, then strategically positioned “Gstrings” could herd oxidative damage away from important coding regions into non-coding or “junk” DNA. There it could await the attention of repair enzymes.

And there ‘s reason to believe this isn ‘t just aclever theory.

Geneticists have long puzzled over why animal genes contain numerous non-coding regions called “introns” separating the “exons” that encode proteins. In 2001 Heller and his co-worker Keith Friedman reported that in humans, G-strings are unusually abundant at the edges of these introns exactly where they would need to be to funnel mutations away from sensitive areas ( Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol 105, p 11859). The researchers also point out that human exons are generally just 150 to 180 base pairs long. So assuming the theoretical 100- base-pair limit holds true, any hole should be able to reach the safety of a sacrificial G-string.

“Cathodic protection is a really nice idea,” says Giese. “It could be one of the functions of junk DNA.” Barton agrees it ‘s a “logical proposal” but says it needs confirmation.

Heller and Friedman admit their theory is speculative and has some problems. G-strings are also known to signal intron-exon boundaries to DNA processing enzymes, whichwould explain their abundance at these locations. What ‘s more, the human data isn ‘t backed up by studies of non-vertebrate genomes, which often have long exons and seem to lack G-strings at intron-exon boundaries.

On the other hand, water is very scarce in the nucleus, so holes might even be able to skip away from large exons before combining with a water molecule and causing damage. There ‘s also evidence that DNA ‘s conductivity increases when it crystallises. Intriguingly, bacteria subjected to stressful conditions are known to produce a protein that induces DNA crystallisation. Is this a way of cranking up their defences against DNA damage?

Charge transfer might have another function. It ‘s not just electron holes that travel through DNA physicists have shown that free electrons do too. And electrons are an important player in DNA repair, with many repair enzymes donating them to fix damaged sites. Some researchers are now speculating that enzymes might take advantage of charge transport by donating their electrons at a distance and letting the DNA duplex carry them to where they ‘re needed. This would solve one of the big puzzles in DNA repair how do enzymes access damage? In living cells DNA is bundled up with proteins and coiled into impenetrable superhelices, so without charge transport it ‘s hard to see how enzymes could access the part that needs repairing.

Already there is some evidence that specially designed molecules can perform DNA repair at a distance. And Barton says her group is writing up results hinting that natural enzymes do the same, though she won ‘t give details before they ‘re published. Charge transfer might have started life as idle speculation, but it ‘s starting to look like a vital property of the DNA duplex.

(to link the article above use: #DNA1)

## Boson-Fermion Condensates, by Barry Carter

Strange “powers” or abilities are mentioned in almost every spiritual tradition. For example these abilities are called siddhis in the Hindu tradition and fruits of the spirit in the Christian tradition These abilities include clairvoyance, telepathy, levitation, prophecy, apparitions and teleportation.

Most of these abilities appear to correspond with certain quantum particle behaviors mentioned in the literature of quantum physics. These correlations might be:

Clairvoyance: Quantum Coherence ; Telepathy: Quantum Coherence ; Levitation: Superconductive Meissner Effect ; Prophecy: Tachyon Theory ; Teleportation: Josephson Tunneling ; Apparitions: Superfluid Behavior

The problem, with applying these quantum physical explanations to macro physical phenomena, has traditionally been that the quantum behaviors are mainly seen at the scale of the atom or smaller. Physicists say that little stuff does this but big stuff does not.

Interestingly, all of these strange abilities have been mentioned by ORMUS researchers in conjunction with the ORMUS elements.

The quantum behaviors that are mentioned above are generally considered to be a property of bosons rather than fermions.

According to this web page:

“The nucleus of an atom is a fermion or boson depending on whether the total number of its protons and neutrons is odd or even, respectively.”

and: “A fermion is any particle that has an odd half-integer (like 1/2, 3/2, and so forth) spin. Quarks and leptons, as well as most composite particles, like protons and neutrons, are fermions. For reasons we do not fully understand, a consequence of the odd half-integer spin is that fermions obey the Pauli Exclusion Principle and therefore cannot co-exist in the same state at same location at the same time.”

Bosons are those particles which have an integer spin (0, 1, 2…).All the force carrier particles are bosons, as are those composite particles with an even number of fermion particles (like mesons).”

Following is a chart of the natural isotopes of the twelve ORMUS elements that Hudson described:

As you can see from this chart, every one of these elements has one or more isotopes that are fermionic.

Physicists discuss the nature of the elements in terms of nuclear or electron bosonic or fermionic composition. Following is another chart with the total percentages of nuclear fermion/boson composition and whether the element has a fermionic or bosonic electron configuration.

Thus we see that all of the ORMUS elements except nickel have a significant percentage of fermionic isotopes and half of them have fermionic electron configurations. Therefore, it seems likely that, at the very least, the odd numbered elements would have to be in diatomic (or larger) fermionic condensate configurations in order to exhibit the bosonic behaviors that may correlate to the strange abilities mentioned above.

(to link the article above use: #ORMCARBOSON)


… All of these m-state elements are abundant in sea water. According to David Hudson’s discoveries, these elements in their m-state may be as much as 10,000 times more abundant than their metallic counterparts. There also may be other elements which occur naturally in the m-state.

Various researchers, working independently, have identified these materials in this different state of matter. They have arrived at many of the same observations. These m-state elements have been observed to exhibit superconductivity, superfluidity, Josephson tunneling and magnetic levitation. It looks like these are an entirely new class of materials. These m-state elements are also present in many biological systems. They may enhance energy flow in the microtubules inside every living cell.

It appears that this state of certain of these elements has been known throughout history. Several of the procedures for extracting or making ORMUS have been adapted from ancient alchemical texts. We believe that the Philosopher’s Stone and the Biblical manna are both variations on this state of matter. Some recommended alchemical texts related to the Philosopher’s Stone are “Sacred Science” by R.A. Schwaller De Lubicz and “Le Mystere des Cathedrales” by Fulcanelli, available from Another source is “Occult Chemistry” by Leadbeater and Besant. The premier treatise on the subject may be “The Secret Book” by Artephius which is available at this Web site:

There may be several paths to the Philosopher’s Stone. There may even be several different Stones. More research on the nature of m-state is needed. Since the ORMUS materials are much more prevalent in nature than their metallic counterparts, they can be extracted with some time, effort, and understanding. We invite others to join in the quest for knowledge of these materials.


The following information is presented to promote scientific research into the nature of these materials. Although these theories are based on our best knowledge at this time, further scientific research may prove some of these theories to be inaccurate. Remember that the following are just theories.

A monoatomic element has one atom per molecule; a diatomic element has two atoms per molecule. Certain elements in a monatomic or diatomic configuration can form a stable structure where all of their electrons are Cooper paired, and so are not available as valence electrons (more on this later). Elements in this configuration are superconductors at room temperature and exhibit other quantum physical behaviors at a visible scale. Some of these quantum physical behaviors include:
– Anomalous responses to gravity – Superfluidity – “Tunneling” through solid objects – Deformed nuclei in a high-spin state

One term for these materials is microclusters. Microclusters have been described as follows on a microcluster forum :
“A microcluster is a small chemically inert cluster of atoms that has definite crystalline structure. They can be synthetic, however for this work an assumption is that the natural microclusters are forms comparable to the man-made microcluster. Microcluster research started with natural occurrences. Clusters exist as molecular species which can substitute and mimic various elements for one another. Microclusters can be as large as 200 or more atoms. Certain atomic examples for each atom are rare; the rarity is due to current physical chemistry concepts. Research has demonstrated that natural micro-clusters are superconductors; they are Cheshire in that they can disappear and avoid chemical detection by conventional means. Most, if not all, have catalytic properties; they are magnetic or can be induced to have electromagnetic properties; and they can form giant inert ions which I call Mega-ions.”

ORMUS AND BECs: Physicists have recently created a new state of matter (which we believe is related to ORMUS) in the laboratory. This state of matter is called a Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC) after Satyendra Nath Bose and Albert Einstein who postulated the existence of this state of matter in the 1920s. Their theory was not “proven” until BECs were created in the laboratory in 1995 by Eric Cornell and Carl Wieman in Boulder, Colorado. They did it by cooling atoms to a much lower temperature than had been previously achieved. This temperature was a millionth of a degree above absolute zero.

Absolute zero is the temperature at which all atomic movement ceases. When atoms are cooled near absolute zero, they move much more slowly than when they are at normal temperatures. David Hudson postulates that his ORME atoms have a natural internal temperature which is very close to absolute zero. This may be why they can be Bose-Einstein condensates at room temperature and higher. A Bose-Einstein Condensate is a group of atoms which are all in the same quantum state. Such a group of atoms consequently behaves, in some ways, as a single atom. Superconductors are a form of BECs and so are superfluids.

You can read a simple description of what BECs are and how they work on the BEC homepage

Here is an explanation of how BECs, superconductors and Cooper pairing inter-relate from the American Institute of Physics web page titled “BECs, Superconductors, and Cooper Pairing”:

“A superfluid is a liquid that flows without viscosity or inner friction. For a liquid to become superfluid, the atoms or molecules making up the liquid must be cooled or “condensed” to the point at which they all occupy the same quantum state. A liquid of helium-3, an atom whose nucleus is made up of an odd number of particles, is a type of particle known as a fermion. Groups of fermions are not allowed to occupy the same quantum state.” “By cooling the liquid to a low enough temperature, helium-3 atoms can pair up. The number of particles in each nucleus adds up to an even number, making it a type of particle known as a boson. Groups of bosons can fall into the same quantum state, and therefore superfluidity can be achieved. Helium-4 (middle panel), a boson, does not need to pair up to form a superfluid; groups of helium-4 atoms condense into the superfluid state at about 2 degrees above absolute zero. Superfluidity, especially the kind that exists in helium-3, is analogous to conventional low-temperature superconductivity, in which electrons flow through certain metals and alloys without resistance. In a superconductor (right panel), electrons, which are fermions, pair up in the metal crystal to form “Cooper pairs,” bosons which can then condense into a superconducting state.”

THE DIATOMIC NATURE OF SOME M-STATE MATERIALS: The following elements, which are known to have an m-state, have an odd number of electrons and protons:

Cobalt – Copper – Rhodium – Silver – Iridium – Gold

In order for these atoms to be superconductors in the m-state, they must be at least diatoms.

The m-state of gold and other precious elements is different from the metallic state of these same elements. For example ingesting m-state gold has different effects on the body than the effects of ingesting metallic gold. What makes the ORMUS state atoms different is that they will not form metal-metal bonds with their own kind.

They won’t form metal-metal bonds because their valence electrons are not available to form normal molecular bonds. This is because each electron is paired up with another electron in a Cooper paired state. When electrons are Cooper paired, they cease to behave as particles and begin to behave more like light. Since you must have an even number of electrons in order for every electron to pair up with another electron, you cannot have the m-state of any element which has an odd number of electrons without having at least two of these atoms paired up.

For example, iridium has an atomic number of 77. This means that iridium has 77 electrons. 76 of these electrons could pair up but that would still leave one electron available for bonding with another atom in a compound. But if you had two atoms of iridium with mingled nuclei and electron clouds you would have 154 electrons. Since 154 is an even number, all of these electrons can pair up into 77 Cooper pairs. Nucleons also pair up in the same way to form superconductors. All known superconductors involve this kind of Cooper pairing.

Please realize that as a Bose-Einstein condensate, both atoms in the diatom will behave as one atom. They also resonance couple with other diatoms of the same element which are nearby. This resonance-coupled quantum oscillation is another of the definitions of superconductivity. As you use chemistry to move a metal toward the ORMUS/BEC state, the chemical reactions necessary to do this moving become weaker and weaker since fewer and fewer of the valence electrons are available to participate in the chemical reactions. Eventually there are no electron handles that can be used to manipulate these materials. Fortunately these materials have other properties which can be used to manipulate them.

Since they are superconductors, they can be manipulated by magnetic fields. For example, if you shield them from magnetic fields during boiling processes, you will be able to conserve more of them in your liquid since they will not be impelled to tunnel out of your container or go off as a gas. They can also be manipulated by providing them with a comfy “box” to hide out in. The ORMUS/BECs seem to “like” tight spaces. Ring molecules such as the tri-sodium ring or the diozone ring can provide a chemical “box” with handles. Salt and sodium, in particular, seem to stabilize the ORMUS materials, theoretically by forming a triangular structure or box around the precious element atom. Though you cannot get a chemical handle on the fully Cooper paired ORMUS atoms, you can entice them into a chemical box with handles and then manipulate the box using fairly standard physical and chemical methods. So, although these elements are the same as the “heavy metal” elements, they are not in a metallic state and as long as the m-state of these elements is present in sufficient amounts, the metallic portion seems to “borrow” the properties of the m-state.

BECs are also known to have the ability to “tunnel” across impenetrable barriers. Professor Brian D. Josephson of the Theory of Condensed Matter Group of the Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge (i.e. the Physics Department of the University of Cambridge) received the Nobel Prize in physics for his discovery of the tunneling phenomenon. Dr. Josephson is currently working on something called the Mind-Matter Unification Project.

ORMUS AND MICROTUBULES: Other physicists are also working on theories which unite mind and matter. One fairly recent discovery in biology and physics is that a certain small structure in every cell, called the microtubule, exhibits superconductive and tunneling behaviors at body temperature.

You can read more about the quantum properties of microtubules from links on Rhett Savage’s Quantum Brain web page

And on several of Matti Pitkanen’s web pages:
Exotic atoms and a mechanism for superconductivity in biosystems
Negentropy Maximization Principle and TGD Inspired Theory of Consciousness
TGD:eish model for the EEG and generation of nerve pulse

One of the problems with modern quantum physical theories is that there is no way to logically connect the Bose-Einstein condensates, which have been demonstrated to exist in small groups of atoms at a millionth of a degree above absolute zero, with the BEC like behavior of microtubules at body temperature in living cells. ORMUS materials would make this connection.

Several of the modern theories relating to microtubules were proposed by Roger Penrose (a physicist) and Stuart Hameroff (an anesthesiologist). Here we will quote from an anonymous scientist who has explained Penrose and Hameroff’s theory quite elegantly:

“Penrose has been seeking a better way to explain the fantastic computational power of the brain and Hameroff has been seeking the source of consciousness. The two heard of each other and got together to find that they both sought a common structure, the microtubule. “Penrose sought a structure in the brain that had nanometer dimensions because such a structure would be necessary to support quantum effects. Hameroff sought the structure responsible for consciousness. They agreed that the microtubules would provide for both. “Mictotubules are tiny tubular structures within neurons that are made from two forms of tubulin. The two forms can be switched by tiny electric currents, so Penrose has proposed that the tubulin units may be the on/off switches for the brain’s data processing. I agree with this proposal because it allows us to be what we are by increasing our potential processing rate from from an unacceptable 10 Exp11 operations per second (OPS) to a reasonably acceptable 10 Exp24 OPS. Penrose explains all this quite well and I recommend him to all who would like to have a deeper understanding of our minds.

“Hameroff has done a lot of research into how consciousness works and he has concluded that the microtubules are the source of our consciousness. This is discussed in and supported by Penrose’s work. Hameroff has concluded that the observable quantum effects that occur in human brains are caused by highly aligned water that is inside the microtubules. Penrose agrees with this concept and further argues that Bose- Einstein Condensations (BECs) in the neurons are how we reach decisions. The BECs are possible because the water inside the microtubules can be strongly aligned to form a high-temperature superconductive medium. “This concept supports my thinking very well. BECs provide an explanation for all the effects I refer to as psionics. These effects include: telepathy, remote viewing, bilocation, telekinesis, and astral travel. A BEC in the Broca area of the brain would allow thoughts to exist inside the brain and outside the head at the same time. This can explain both telepathy and how it is controlled. Likewise, a BEC in the visual processing areas would explain remote viewing. Since microtubules exist in all neurons and neurons extend into all parts of the body, a BEC including all neurons would allow the body to exist in two (or more) places at the same time, thus explaining bilocation. “With this discovery, all psionics can be explained in modern physical terms. This opens the whole field of psionics to persons like myself who have had so much technical training that it is impossible to accept psionics. This discovery means that all the formal training I’ve had in Chemistry, Math, and Physics still applies and can even help explain psionics. For me, it is good to know that all these topics can exist peacefully together.”

For more information on “psychic” observations of these materials see: Paranormal Observations of ORMEs Atomic Structure (in the WhiteGold web site)

In a paper titled “Orchestrated reduction of quantum coherence in brain microtubules: A model for consciousness”Hameroff/Penrose site at U. of Arizona

Hameroff and Penrose write: “A critical number of tubulins maintaining coherence within [microtubules] for 500 msec collapses its own wave function (objective reduction: OR). This occurs because the mass-energy difference among the superpositioned states of coherent tubulins critically perturbs space-time geometry. To prevent multiple universes, the system must reduce to a single space-time by choosing eigenstates.”

Hameroff and Penrose are saying that in order to avoid “seeing” multiple universes at the same time, the quantum coherence created in microtubules by some material (we think the m-state materials) must collapse. What if the quantum coherence did not collapse and we became aware of multiple universes?

Many modern physicists believe that there are an infinite number of parallel universes. They theorize that atoms are made up of smaller particles which are like bubbles in the quantum foam. These bubbles in the quantum foam or “holes in the aether” spend a fraction of their existence in each of these parallel universes. There is quite a debate as to whether information is transferred between these parallel universes. You can read a bit about this debate at: Braintennis

This concept of multiple or parallel universes has been a recurring theme in science fiction for at least 60 years. It is also one of the key concepts of modern mystical thought. It first appeared as a mystical concept in The ‘Unknown’ Reality by Jane Roberts which was dictated by Seth in 1974-75.

INFORMATION RESOURCES: For the interested person willing to do the necessary work, there is an abundance of detailed technical information available on the Web. The best related web sites are:
– High-Spin Monatomic Research at:
– The WhiteGold Web Home Page at:
– Superconductive s-ORMEs

(to link the article above use: #ZZCOM)


*They can interact in 2 dimensions.
*They can pass energy from one “same quantum state” particle to another with no net loss of energy.
*They have superconductive non-voltage potential insular against gravity and magnetic fields.
*They are superconductive by light frequency and their quantum waves know no boundaries of space and time.

We add extra Gold to our Manna, because it has such a rich history of therapeutic uses that spans thousands of years. Gold was believed by the Mystics, to absorb the Earth’s energy and has been referred to as the “Master Healer”. The Romans used Gold salves to treat shin ulcers.

“Gold Waters” were used in medieval times to “comfort sore limbs”. In 14th century England, you could buy “cramp rings” to relieve muscular pains and epilepsy. One of the main remedial uses of Gold then and even today is for arthritis and rheumatism. It has been used to treat nervous disorders and alcohol addiction.

We are just beginning to understand its biochemical mechanism and affect on the nervous system and the brain. Research has shown it tends to localize in the nervous system tissue and is believed to stimulate nerve regeneration. As a “conductor”*, it is believed to increase neurotransmissions in both brain lobes, balancing creative and logical thoughts and to promote communication between the conscious and subconscious minds.

We know very little about gold’s bioavailability. But we do know that fingernail clippings from ring fingers show higher concentrations of gold than the other fingers do. It’s been found in the reproductive system; the uterine and placenta tissue and semen is noted as the richest biological source. Hair samples of newborn infants show levels of zinc, copper and gold, which gradually decrease after 3 months of age.

Current research has shown the physiological effects on cells do not require large doses. Because gold is non toxic (in low doses) it’s currently being used as a molecular marker that’s readily visible under a microscope. This way researchers can actually see its reaction on different living cells. Gold pellets are being injected to help retard prostate cancer in men and ovarian cancer in women. There is also more research being done on gold’s ability to stabilize body temperature to decrease hot flashes.

Gold and other ORMUS materials contained in liquid Manna, stimulate cell communication and aid in rejuvenating our biological systems. One of the first signs of this “cell boost” is an increase in energy levels. If our body possess the extra ability to heal and isn’t in a constantly overworked healing mode, we can enjoy the benefits of extra stamina and clearer thinking.

*A lot of the current ORMUS research has been spearheaded by Barry Carter, who is considered a world renowned expert on this subject. His web site has an amazing amount of ORMUS facts, research and up to date theory, which he has made available to everyone.
We, among many others, thank him for sharing this wealth of information.

(to link the article above use: #SC1)

## Quantum secrets of photosynthesis revealed,

Sunlight absorbed by bacteriochlorophyll (green) within the FMO protein (gray) generates a wavelike motion of excitation energy whose quantum mechanical properties can be mapped through the use of two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy. Image courtesy of Greg Engel, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Physical Biosciences Division

Through photosynthesis, green plants and cyanobacteria are able to transfer sunlight energy to molecular reaction centers for conversion into chemical energy with nearly 100-percent efficiency. Speed is the key – the transfer of the solar energy takes place almost instantaneously so little energy is wasted as heat. How photosynthesis achieves this near instantaneous energy transfer is a long-standing mystery that may have finally been solved.

A study led by researchers with the U.S. Department of Energy’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and the University of California (UC) at Berkeley reports that the answer lies in quantum mechanical effects. Results of the study are presented in the April 12, 2007 issue of the journal Nature.

“We have obtained the first direct evidence that remarkably long-lived wavelike electronic quantum coherence plays an important part in energy transfer processes during photosynthesis,” said Graham Fleming, the principal investigator for the study. “This wavelike characteristic can explain the extreme efficiency of the energy transfer because it enables the system to simultaneously sample all the potential energy pathways and choose the most efficient one.”

2-D electronic spectroscopy developed in the research group of Berkeley Lab’s Graham Fleming enables scientists to follow the flow of light-induced excitation energy through molecular complexes with femtosecond temporal resolution. In this 2-D electronic spectrum, the amplitude of the quantum beating signal for exciton 1 is plotted against population time. The black line covers the exciton 1 peak amplitude. The experimental data’s agreement with theory is shown on the right. Credit: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

Fleming is the Deputy Director of Berkeley Lab, a professor of chemistry at UC Berkeley, and an internationally acclaimed leader in spectroscopic studies of the photosynthetic process. In a paper entitled, Evidence for wavelike energy transfer through quantum coherence in photosynthetic systems, he and his collaborators report the detection of “quantum beating” signals, coherent electronic oscillations in both donor and acceptor molecules, generated by light-induced energy excitations, like the ripples formed when stones are tossed into a pond.

Electronic spectroscopy measurements made on a femtosecond (millionths of a billionth of a second) time-scale showed these oscillations meeting and interfering constructively, forming wavelike motions of energy (superposition states) that can explore all potential energy pathways simultaneously and reversibly, meaning they can retreat from wrong pathways with no penalty. This finding contradicts the classical description of the photosynthetic energy transfer process as one in which excitation energy hops from light-capturing pigment molecules to reaction center molecules step-by-step down the molecular energy ladder.

“The classical hopping description of the energy transfer process is both inadequate and inaccurate,” said Fleming. “It gives the wrong picture of how the process actually works, and misses a crucial aspect of the reason for the wonderful efficiency.”

Co-authoring the Nature paper with Fleming were Gregory Engel, who was first author, Tessa Calhoun, Elizabeth Read, Tae-Kyu Ahn, Tomas Mancal and Yuan-Chung Cheng, all of whom held joint appointments with Berkeley Lab’s Physical Biosciences Division and the UC Berkeley Chemistry Department at the time of the study, plus Robert Blankenship, from the Washington University in St. Louis.

The photosynthetic technique for transferring energy from one molecular system to another should make any short-list of Mother Nature’s spectacular accomplishments. If we can learn enough to emulate this process, we might be able to create artificial versions of photosynthesis that would help us effectively tap into the sun as a clean, efficient, sustainable and carbon-neutral source of energy.

Towards this end, Fleming and his research group have developed a technique called two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy that enables them to follow the flow of light-induced excitation energy through molecular complexes with femtosecond temporal resolution. The technique involves sequentially flashing a sample with femtosecond pulses of light from three laser beams. A fourth beam is used as a local oscillator to amplify and detect the resulting spectroscopic signals as the excitation energy from the laser lights is transferred from one molecule to the next. (The excitation energy changes the way each molecule absorbs and emits light.)

Fleming has compared 2-D electronic spectroscopy to the technique used in the early super-heterodyne radios, where an incoming high frequency radio signal was converted by an oscillator to a lower frequency for more controllable amplification and better reception. In the case of 2-D electronic spectroscopy, scientists can track the transfer of energy between molecules that are coupled (connected) through their electronic and vibrational states in any photoactive system, macromolecular assembly or nanostructure.

Fleming and his group first described 2-D electronic spectroscopy in a 2005 Nature paper, when they used the technique to observe electronic couplings in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) photosynthetic light-harvesting protein, a molecular complex in green sulphur bacteria.

Said Engel, “The 2005 paper was the first biological application of this technique, now we have used 2-D electronic spectroscopy to discover a new phenomenon in photosynthetic systems. While the possibility that photosynthetic energy transfer might involve quantum oscillations was first suggested more than 70 years ago, the wavelike motion of excitation energy had never been observed until now.”

As in the 2005 paper, the FMO protein was again the target. FMO is considered a model system for studying photosynthetic energy transfer because it consists of only seven pigment molecules and its chemistry has been well characterized.

“To observe the quantum beats, 2-D spectra were taken at 33 population times, ranging from 0 to 660 femtoseconds,” said Engel. “In these spectra, the lowest-energy exciton (a bound electron-hole pair formed when an incoming photon boosts an electron out of the valence energy band into the conduction band) gives rise to a diagonal peak near 825 nanometers that clearly oscillates. The associated cross-peak amplitude also appears to oscillate. Surprisingly, this quantum beating lasted the entire 660 femtoseconds.”

Engel said the duration of the quantum beating signals was unexpected because the general scientific assumption had been that the electronic coherences responsible for such oscillations are rapidly destroyed.

“For this reason, the transfer of electronic coherence between excitons during relaxation has usually been ignored,” Engel said. “By demonstrating that the energy transfer process does involve electronic coherence and that this coherence is much stronger than we would ever have expected, we have shown that the process can be much more efficient than the classical view could explain. However, we still don’t know to what degree photosynthesis benefits from these quantum effects.”

Engel said one of the next steps for the Fleming group in this line of research will be to look at the effects of temperature changes on the photosynthetic energy transfer process. The results for this latest paper in Nature were obtained from FMO complexes kept at 77 Kelvin. The group will also be looking at broader bandwidths of energy using different colors of light pulses to map out everything that is going on, not just energy transfer. Ultimately, the idea is to gain a much better understanding how Nature not only transfers energy from one molecular system to another, but is also able to convert it into useful forms.

“Nature has had about 2.7 billion years to perfect photosynthesis, so there are huge lessons that remain for us to learn,” Engel said. “The results we’re reporting in this latest paper, however, at least give us a new way to think about the design of future artificial photosynthesis systems.”

Source: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
» Next Article in Physics – Physics: Electrons caught in the act of tunnelling

– On 13-Apr-2007 by Gerald R. Everett : I think the interesting thing is that nature did not have 2.7 billion years to perfect photosynthesis. Cyanobacteria were amoung the first living things to appear.

– Gerald R. Everett : On 13-Apr-2007 by Static_8
“coherent electronic oscillations in both donor and acceptor molecules, generated by light-induced energy excitations, like the ripples formed when stones are tossed into a pond.”

This sounds like common magnetic wave action, much like Tesla describes when harmonics are used….almost like the Tesla Transimitter?

(to link the article above use: #PHOTOS)

## Superconductivity and magnetism in harmony in a novel nanomaterial, =1

9 March 2007, A community web site from Institute of Physics Publishing

Magnetism and superconductivity are often thought to be incompatible. However, physicists in the US and France have created a nanoscale structure that contains both magnetic and superconducting properties at the same time. The results show a hitherto undocumented interplay between ferromagnetism and superconductivity and the researchers will be studying the phenomenon at the Swiss Light Source, at the Paul Scherrer Institute, over the next two years.

According to the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory of superconductivity, electrons with opposite spins form pairs that can move through a material without resistance. A magnetic field can destroy superconductivity in two ways: by breaking up the electron pair, or by trying to make both of the electron spins point in the same direction. These effects also limit how much current can flow through the superconductor because of the disruptive effect of the magnetic field produced by the current itself.

Last year, Jacques Chakhalian and colleagues at the Max Planck Institute, Germany, and the University of Grenoble, France, published a paper in Nature Physics, documenting novel properties at the interface between a superconductor made from yttrium, barium copper and oxygen and a ferromagnet made from lanthanum calcium manganese oxide (LCMO). The researchers developed a technique that allowed them to combine the two materials in one thin-film superlattice, which showed both superconducting and magnetic properties.

Chakhalian and colleagues now plan to look more closely at the interface between the two materials using synchrotron light (electromagnetic radiation of varying wavelengths that can be tuned to a specific wavelength for a particular experiment). To help them do this, the researchers have been awarded research time and financial support over the next two years, at the Swiss Light Source – the most advanced synchrotron light source in the world.

The spectrum at the Swiss Light Source varies from infrared light to soft and hard X-rays. However, unlike conventional X-rays, which diffuse through space, the light beams from the synchrotron are sharply focused. The main technical challenge for Chakhalian and his team will now be to focus the beam of low-energy photons into a spot the size of a few hundred microns.

The work will open up a new area of physics and could even lead to the discovery of more materials with both magnetic and superconducting properties, say the researchers.

(to link the article above use: #SUPERC)

## More than you ever wanted to know,

Molecules and atoms both have energy levels. Electrons can exist only at certain specific “states” which have specific energies. The lowest energy state is called the ground state, G. In a helium atom the ground state is named 1s and contains two electrons, these electrons have spins, and the spins of the electrons are in opposite directions, one spin up the other spin down. When two electrons have their spins opposite they are said to be in a “singlet state.” One electron can be excited into a higher energy state, E. It can then have a spin the same direction as the electron left behind in the ground state, or opposite. If it has a spin in the opposite direction it is in a singlet state, if it is the same it is in a so called “triplet state.” It is easier for an electron in a singlet state to decay to a singlet state than it is for an electron in a triplet state to decay to a singlet state. (It is about a hundred million times easier! i.e. 108 times easier.)

When ultraviolet light strikes a molecule it can excite the molecule from its ground state, G, to a higher energy excited state, E. If the electron decays right back down to G it reemits the radiation which is called resonance radiation, the resonance radiation has the same color or energy as the exciting radiation. However, while it is in the excited state a collision with another molecule can take away some energy, a process called internal conversion, leaving the molecule in a middle energy state, M.

When the molecule goes from the M state to the ground state light is emitted which has lower energy than the light that excited the molecule in the first place. Thus a molecule can be excited by high energy ultraviolet light, and emit lower energy blue, green, or even red light. This is fluorescence!

In some materials the transition from the M state to ground is forbidden. For example when the ground state is a singlet state, as most ground states are, and the middle energy state is a triplet state. In these materials the emission of light is delayed. The delayed emission is phosphorescence. (In addition to the rare decays from a triplet to a singlet state, collisions can convert the triplet M state back into a singlet E state followed by a decay to the ground state an light emission.

(to link the article above use: #ELE)

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